|Redundancy causes Inconsistency.
||Minimizes Redundancy and Inconsistency
|Data is scattered in various files.
||Data resides in the same storage location in the form of related files in groups
|Restoring data is difficult, on a system failure.
||Software ensures the recovery process, on system failure.
|Concurrency control is not possible on various files, when multiple users access same file.
||Locking and concurrency control are adopted robustly to avoid inconsistency.
|Access control for a part of the file is not possible
||All access to data file is through database structure, access to part of the data can be controlled
|For each request each time a new request comes for different kind of data processing, new programs have to be written
||Query languages make it easy and efficient to develop programs for data processing
R15 JNTU DBMS Syllabus Download